Amamuko y’icayi mu Burundi gisanzwe ari ubutunzi ku gihugu no ku barimyi

Yanditswe na Egide NDUWIMANA
Kuya 20 Kigarama 2017 saa 03:12
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Mu gihe Uburundi buriko buhimbaza indwi yahariwe icayi, ishirahamwe rihingura icayi OTB rikaba ryatanguje Icayi c’akatsi kabisi (Thé vert), i Buhoro mu ntara ya Cibitoke, twashatse kumenya uko ico giterwa cifashe. Ni muri iyo ntumbero twiyumviriye kwandika ibijanye n’amamuko y’ico giterwa, uko cashitse mu Burundi n’akamaro gifitiye igihugu n’abarimyi. Ayo makuru n’ayo matohoza tuyakesha umushakashatsi Eric NDAYISABA, asanzwe ari Umwigisha muri Kaminuza Nderabigisha E.N.S.

Amamuko y’icayi

Icayi gifise amamuko muri Aziya y’Ubuseruko bushira Ubumanuko. Amayarwa avuga ko Umwami w’abami w’Ubushinwa Chene Nung (2 737-2697) yari yicaye munsi y’igiti ariko yinywera amazi ashushe ku mvo z’amagara, niho umuyaga wahungabanya ca giti, amababi agakorokera muri ya mazi, hanyuma anyoye araryoherwa cane, aca ategeka abantu kunywa ico giterwa, acita Icayi.

Ibiti vya mbere vy’icayi vyaciye biterwa ku misozi ya Tibet muri -53. Ni uko rero abantu bamaze gukunda ico kinyobwa, icayi catanguye kudandazwa mu karere ka Aziya.

Ico giterwa rero camenyekanye mu Buyapani mu kinjana ca 9 kizanyweyo n’abanyedini rya Bouddhisme. N’uko icayi cinjira mu mico ya Aziya imbere yo gukwiragira mu bindi bihugu vyo kw’isi.

Abahorande nibo ba mbere bashikanye icayi i Burayi muri 1606, bakurikirwa n’Abongereza muri 1657, n’Abafaransa muri 1700. Icayi caciye gikundwa cane n’abanyaburayi mu kinjna ca 19 ubuhinga bumaze kwerekana neza uburimyi bwaco n’akamaro ko kukinywa. Ariko ni Abongereza bagikwiragije cane kw’isi, mu kukidangaza no mu kugitera mu bihugu vyatwarwa nabo (Akarorero k’Ubuhindi).

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Ibihugu birima icayi kw’Isi

Muri Afrika, naho nyene icayi catangujwe n’intwaro gikoroni mu kinjana ca 19, ubwa mbere muri Malawi muri 1890, hasubira mu myaka ya 1900 mu Buganda, Zimbabwe, Kenya, Tanzaniya na Mozambike. Ariko rero ikiza c’ubutunzi (crise économique) n’indwano z’isi ntivyorohereje igiterwa n’ubudandaji bw’icayi. Ni mu mpera y’indwano ya 2 igiterwa c’icayi casubira kwitwabwaho cane, gica giterwa mu myaka ya 50 muri Cameroun, mu Rwanda, muri Congo, mu Burundi, no muri Afrika y’epfo muri 1964, na Etiopiya muri 2006.

Ico giterwa rero carakunze cane Afrika y’Ubuseruko, aho igihugu ca Kenya ari ica 1 muri Afrika, kikaba ica 3 kw’Isi mu kwimbura icayi. Mukamenya ko icayi cari catanguye kugeragezwa guhera mu 1930 mu bigo vy’ubushakashatsi vya Congo, Urwanda n’Uburundi.

Icayi mu Burundi cinjiza amahera y’agaciro ku rugero rugira 2

Icayi catanguye kugeragezwa mu Burundi mu 1930 mu kigo c’Uburimyi c’i Gisozi, ku ntwaro kibirigi, ariko nticabandanijwe cane kurimwa. Ni guhera mu mpera z’imyaka ya 50, Uburundi bufashijwe n’ishirahamwe ry’Abanyaburayi, bwakwiragije icayi mu ntara z’imisozi miremire (Muramvya, Kayanza, Mwaro, Bururi, Bujumbura na Cibitoke), mu ntumero yo kunagura ubutunzi bwa Reta no kwongereza amikoro y’abarimyi. Haciye haterwa icayi ca Reta (22,1%) n’icayi c’abanyagihugu (77,9%). Ico giterwa rero ubu kigira kabiri mu kwinjiza amafaranga y’agaciro (25%) mu nyuma z’ikawa (60%). Gushika ubu rero igice ca 3 c’Uburundi kirarima icayi, aho abanyagihugu bashika ibihumbi 60 bitaho ico giterwa.

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Ishirahamwe rihingura icayi (OTB) ryatanguje kuri uwu wa mbere icayi c’akatsi kabisi (Thé vert). Jacques BIGIRIMANA, umuyobozi mukuru w’iryo shirahamwe afise ico cayi

Ishirahamwe rihingura icayi OTB rikurikirana imirima ingana Hegitari 10 000 (icayi ca Reta n’icayi c’abanyagihugu) iri mu bice vya Buhoro, Rwegura, Teza, Ijenda na Tora.

Ishirahamwe OTB rigurira amababi y’icayi abanyagihugu rikayahingura, rigashora icayi mu masoko atandukanye.

Guhera mu myaka ya 2000 rero, akamaro k’icayi kagiye kiyongera mu butunzi bw’igihugu, ivyo bigasigurwa n’intambwe igisata c’icayi cateye nko mu kwongereza umwimbu mu mirima no mu mahinguriro, isoko yifashe neza, na cane cane ko umusaruro w’ikawa wagiye ugabanuka mu myaka iheze.

Amahera y’agaciro ku gihugu ava mu cayi yagiye yigongera biboneka. Muri 2009 yari amadorari miriyoni 16,17; muri 2010 yashitse ku madorari miriyoni 18,78; muri 2014 yari amadorari miriyoni 21; aca ashikira amadorari imiriyoni 32 mu mwaka wa 2015.

Mu gihe itegeko ritunganya amashirahamwe yigenga ryashizweho muri 2007, ishirahwamwe rishasha PROTHEM ryaciye ritangura muri 2011, rituma haba ihiganwa n’akarusho ku giciro c’abanyagihugu. Ayandi mashirahamwe yaragomvye gutangura ariko kubera atari bwateze imirima mishasha, gushika ubu ntaratangura guhingura icayi.

Muri rusangi, hari imyitwarariko yerekana ko akamaro mu igisata c’icayi kariko gatera imbere : amashirahamwe yigenga, amashirahamwe y’abarimyi, amashirahamwe agurana abarimyi, guhingura icayi c’akatsi kabisi, imfashanyo, n’ibindi. Ariko rero twoshobora kwibaza namba icayi caratumye uburyo bwo kubaho ku barimyi bumera neza gusumba.

Akamaro k’icayi ku barimyi

N’aho igiciro c’icayi cagiye ciyongera ku rugero rw’igiciro co kw’isoko mpuzamakungu, ubushobozi bwo gusuma bw’umurimyi bwaragabanutse, kubera ibiciro vy’ibisumwa muri rusangi vyaduze ku rugero rurengeye. Kubera ko umunyagihugu afise imirima mito mito, kandi gukoresha umukozi bizimvye cane, umwimbu w’icayi ni muto, bigatuma umurimyi ataronka amahera akwiye kugira yiyungunganye muri vyinshi biboneka. Turavye amikoro y’umurimyi, icayi kiza ubwa 3 canke ubwa 4 mu butunzi bw’imiryango. Utwo dufaranga rero dukoreshwa cane cane mu kugura ibiribwa, mu kuriha amashure y’abana no kwivuza. Ariko n’aho ari make, amahera y’icayi, kubera aza buri gihe, arafasha umurimyi mu bimugora bito bito vya minsi yose.

Mu kurangiza rero, twovuga ko icayi ari ubutunzi bukomeye kuri Reta no ku barimyi. Imyitwarariko abatari bake bafitiye ico giterwa (Reta, abarimyi, abikorera utwabo, amashirahamwe afasha, n’abandi) biravyerekana. Turashobora kandi kwibaza ko iyo myitwarariko izotuma ubutunzi bw’icayi bwiyongera cane, mu gihe ababijejwe bose boshira imbere cane inyungu z’umurimyi.

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Joseph BUTORE, icegera ca kabiri c’umukuru w’igihugu c’Uburundi yagendeye kuri uwu wa mbere ahakorera ishirahamwe rihingura icayi, umunsi iryo shirahamwe ryatanguza icayi c’akatsi kabisi (Thé vert), i Buhoro mu ntara ya Cibitoke

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